Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|9 Months Ended|
Sep. 30, 2021
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES||
NOTE 2 - SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements and related notes have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (U.S. GAAP) for interim unaudited condensed consolidated financial information. Accordingly, they do not include all of the information and footnotes required by U.S. GAAP for complete consolidated financial statements. The unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements reflect all adjustments (consisting of normal recurring adjustments) which are, in the opinion of management, necessary for a fair statement of the results for the interim periods presented. Interim results are not necessarily indicative of the results for the full year. These unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the audited condensed consolidated financial statements of the Company for the year ended December 31, 2020 and notes thereto contained in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K.
As shown in the accompanying financial statements, the Company incurred negative operating cash flows of $54,213,231 for the nine months ended September 30, 2021 and has an accumulated deficit of $270,688,619 from inception through September 30, 2021. At September 30, 2021, the Company had cash and short term investments of $88,087,096.
Relmada has funded its past operations through equity raises and most recently in 2021 raised net proceeds from the sale of common stock of $23,416,036 through our ATM offering and $2,116,969 through the exercise of warrants. The Company also raised an additional $569,427 during the nine months ended September 30, 2021 from the exercises of options.
Management believes that the Company’s existing cash and cash equivalents will enable it to fund operating expenses and capital expenditure requirements for at least 12 months from the issuance of these unaudited condensed consolidated quarterly financial statements. Beyond that point management will evaluate the size and scope of any subsequent trials that will affect the timing of additional financings through public or private sales of equity or debt securities or from bank or other loans or through strategic collaboration and/or licensing agreements. Any such expenditures related to any subsequent trials will not be incurred until such additional financing is raised. Further, additional financing related to subsequent trials does not affect the Company’s conclusion that based on the cash on hand and the budgeted cash flow requirements, the Company has sufficient funds to maintain operations for at least 12 months from the issuance of these consolidated financial statements.
Principles of Consolidation
The unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements include the Company’s accounts and those of the Company’s wholly-owned subsidiary. All significant intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
Risks and Uncertainties
The ongoing pandemic may adversely affect our business. Based on the Company’s current assessment, the Company does not expect any material impact on its long-term development timeline and its liquidity due to the worldwide spread of the coronavirus (COVID-19). However, the Company is actively monitoring this situation and the possible effects on its financial condition, liquidity, operations, suppliers, industry, and workforce.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses for the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates. The significant estimates are the valuation of research and development expenses, stock-based compensation expenses and deferred tax assets and the related valuation allowance.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers cash deposits and all highly liquid investments with a maturity of three months or less when purchased to be cash equivalents. The Company’s cash deposits are held at two high-credit-quality financial institutions. The Company’s cash deposits at these institutions exceed federally insured limits.
The Company’s investments consist entirely of mutual funds. The securities are measured at fair value based on the net asset value (NAV). The Company adopted Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) Accounting Standard Update (ASU) 2016-01, Financial Instruments, which requires substantially all equity investments in nonconsolidated entities to be measured at fair value with recurring changes recognized in earnings, except for those accounted for using equity method accounting. Changes in fair value of the securities are recorded as part of other income on the consolidated statement of operations. Short term investment activity is presented in the investing activities section on the consolidated statement of cash flows.
Costs related to filing and pursuing patent applications are recorded as general and administrative expense and expensed as incurred since recoverability of such expenditures is uncertain.
Fixed assets are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation. Fixed assets are comprised of computers and software. Depreciation is calculated using the straight-line method over the estimated useful life of the assets. Computers and software have an estimated useful life of three years.
The Company recognizes its leases with a term of greater than a year on the balance sheet by recording right-of-use assets and lease liabilities. Leases can be classified as either operating leases or finance leases. Operating leases will result in straight-line lease expense, while finance leases will result in front-loaded expense. The Company’s lease consists of an operating lease for office space. The Company does not recognize a lease liability or right-of-use asset on the balance sheet for short-term leases. Instead, the Company recognizes short-term lease payments as an expense on a straight-line basis over the lease term. A short-term lease is defined as a lease that, at the commencement date, has a lease term of 12 months or less and does not include an option to purchase the underlying asset that the lessee is reasonably certain to exercise.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
The Company’s financial instruments primarily include cash, short term investments, and accounts payable. Due to the short-term nature of cash and accounts payable the carrying amounts of these assets and liabilities approximate their fair value.
Fair value is defined as the price that would be received to sell an asset, or paid to transfer a liability (an exit price), in an orderly transaction between market participants at the reporting date. A fair value hierarchy has been established for valuation inputs that gives the highest priority to quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities and the lowest priority to unobservable inputs. The fair value hierarchy is as follows:
The Company’s short-term investment instruments of $76,637,802 at September 30, 2021 consist of mutual funds, bank deposits and money market funds and are classified using Level 1 inputs within the fair value hierarchy because the value is based on quoted prices in active markets. Unrealized gains and losses are recorded in the condensed consolidated statement of operations under other income. The Company recorded an unrealized gain/(loss) of $86,745 and $(379,699) included in other income for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2021, respectively. The Company recorded an unrealized gain of $3,946 and $290,973 included in other income for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020, respectively.
The Company accounts for income taxes using the asset and liability method. Accordingly, deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in the tax rate is recognized in income or expense in the period that the change is effective. Tax benefits are recognized when it is probable that the deduction will be sustained. A valuation allowance is established when it is more likely than not that all or a portion of a deferred tax asset will either expire before the Company is able to realize the benefit, or that future deductibility is uncertain. As of September 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, the Company had recognized a valuation allowance to the full extent of the Company’s net deferred tax assets since the likelihood of realization of the benefit does not meet the more likely than not threshold.
The Company files a U.S. Federal income tax return and various state returns. Uncertain tax positions taken on the Company’s tax returns will be accounted for as liabilities for unrecognized tax benefits. The Company will recognize interest and penalties, if any, related to unrecognized tax benefits in general and administrative expenses in the statements of operations. There were no liabilities recorded for uncertain tax positions at September 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020. The open tax years, subject to potential examination by the applicable taxing authority, for the Company are from June 30, 2018 forward.
Research and Development
Research and development costs primarily consist of research contracts for the advancement of product development, salaries and benefits, stock-based compensation, and consultants. The Company expenses all research and development costs in the period incurred. The Company makes an estimate of costs in relation to clinical study contracts. The Company analyzes the progress of studies, including the progress of clinical studies, invoices received and contracted costs when evaluating the adequacy of the amount expensed and the related prepaid asset and accrued liability.
The Company measures the cost of employee services received in exchange for an award of equity instruments based on the grant-date fair value of the award. That cost is recognized over the period during which an employee is required to provide service in exchange for the award - the requisite service period. The grant-date fair value of employee share options is estimated using the Black-Scholes option pricing model adjusted for the unique characteristics of those instruments.
Net Loss per Common Share
Basic loss per common share attributable to common stockholders is calculated by dividing the net loss attributable to common stockholders by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding for the period, without consideration for common stock equivalents. Diluted loss per common share attributable to common stockholders is computed by dividing the net loss attributable to common stockholders by the weighted-average number of common share equivalents outstanding for the period determined using the treasury-stock method. Dilutive common stock equivalents are comprised of options and warrants to purchase common stock. For all periods presented, there is no difference in the number of shares used to calculate basic and diluted shares outstanding due to the Company’s net loss position.
For the nine months ended September 30, 2021 and 2020, the potentially dilutive securities that would be anti-dilutive due to the Company’s net loss are not included in the calculation of diluted net loss per share attributable to common stockholders. The anti-dilutive securities are as follows (in common stock equivalent shares):
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU 2019-12, Income Taxes (Topic 740): Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes, which is intended to simplify various aspects related to accounting for income taxes. ASU 2019-12 removes certain exceptions to the general principles in Topic 740 and also clarifies and amends existing guidance to improve consistent application. This guidance is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2020. The Company adopted this standard effective January 1, 2021 and the standard did not have a significant impact on our condensed consolidated financial statements.
In May 2021, the FASB issued ASU No. 2021-04, Earnings Per Share (Topic 260), Debt—Modifications and Extinguishments (Subtopic 470-50), Compensation—Stock Compensation (Topic 718), and Derivatives and Hedging—Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40). ASU 2021-04 outlines how an entity should account for modifications made to equity-classified written call options, including stock options and warrants to purchase the entity’s own common stock. The guidance in the ASU requires an entity to treat a modification of an equity-classified written call options that does not cause the option to become liability-classified as an exchange of the original option for a new option. This guidance applies whether the modification is structured as an amendment to the terms and conditions of the equity-classified written call option or as termination of the original option and issuance of a new option. The guidance is effective prospectively for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2021, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted, including in an interim period as of the beginning of the fiscal year that includes that interim period. The Company is currently in the process of evaluating the impact of this new guidance on the condensed consolidated financial statements and the related disclosures.
The Company’s management reviewed all material events through the date the financial statements were issued for subsequent event disclosure consideration.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/disclosureRef